Indicators of Bioactivity and Floral Origin of New Zealand Honeys
The existences of indicator compounds in honeys from various floral origins were examined. The extractable organic substances of five New Zealand honeys: beech honeydew honey, kamahi, ohutukawa, rata and tawari were determined by GC-MS of methylated extracts. This survey confirmed the results of a previous investigation and established ranges for marker compounds. Due to difficulties in obtaining sufficient certified unifloral honeys, previous studies on these honey types were exploratory only and not published. Statistical analysis of the extractable organic substances showed that each honey contains a unique fingerprint of compounds. Agglomerative clustering successfully separated all honeys into the correct floral group with the exception of two
samples. Well separated clusters were produced in the score plot of the first and second Linear Discriminants. 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and an unknown compound (identified by characteristic ions in the mass spectra) were identified as being the most important discriminants, all of which were present in a single floral source.